Hierarchical models I have covered before on this blog. These models are super relevant in practice. For instance, in HR, employee data is always nested within teams which are in turn nested within organizational units. Also in my current field of insurances, claims are always nested within policies, which can in turn be nested within product categories. Data is hierachical, and we need to take that into account when we model it.
All code for this project is on GitHub, including the script to create the data and run regressions (done inR). Feel free to issue a pull request for improvements, and if you like it, share it on Twitter. Layout inspired by Tony Chu.
Multilevel models (also known as hierarchical linear models, nested data models, mixed models, random coefficient, random-effects models, random parameter models, or split-plot designs) are statistical models of parameters that vary at more than one level (Wikipedia). They are very useful in Social Sciences, where we are often interested in individuals that reside in nations, organizations, teams, or other higher-level units. Next to their individuals characteristics, the characteristics of these units they belong to may also have effects. To take into account effects from variables residing at multiple levels, we can use multilevel or hierarchical models.