Tag: automation

Automatically create perfect .gitignore file for your project

Automatically create perfect .gitignore file for your project

These days, I am often programming in multiple different languages for my projects. I will do some data generation and machine learning in Python. The data exploration and some quick visualizations I prefer to do in R. And if I’m feeling adventureous, I might add some Processing or JavaScript visualizations.

Obviously, I want to track and store the versions of my programs and the changes between them. I probably don’t have to tell you that git is the tool to do so.

Normally, you’d have a .gitignore file in your project folder, and all files that are not listed (or have patterns listed) in the .gitignore file are backed up online.

However, when you are working in multiple languages simulatenously, it can become a hassle to assure that only the relevant files for each language are committed to Github.

Each language will have their own “by-files”. R projects come with .Rdata, .Rproj, .Rhistory and so on, whereas Python projects generate pycaches and what not. These you don’t want to commit preferably.

Enter the stage, gitignore.io:

Here you simply enter the operating systems, IDEs, or Programming languages you are working with, and it will generate the appropriate .gitignore contents for you.

Let’s try it out

For my current project, I am working with Python and R in Visual Studio Code. So I enter:

And Voila, I get the perfect .gitignore including all specifics for these programs and languages:


# Created by https://www.gitignore.io/api/r,python,visualstudiocode
# Edit at https://www.gitignore.io/?templates=r,python,visualstudiocode

### Python ###
# Byte-compiled / optimized / DLL files
__pycache__/
*.py[cod]
*$py.class

# C extensions
*.so

# Distribution / packaging
.Python
build/
develop-eggs/
dist/
downloads/
eggs/
.eggs/
lib/
lib64/
parts/
sdist/
var/
wheels/
pip-wheel-metadata/
share/python-wheels/
*.egg-info/
.installed.cfg
*.egg
MANIFEST

# PyInstaller
#  Usually these files are written by a python script from a template
#  before PyInstaller builds the exe, so as to inject date/other infos into it.
*.manifest
*.spec

# Installer logs
pip-log.txt
pip-delete-this-directory.txt

# Unit test / coverage reports
htmlcov/
.tox/
.nox/
.coverage
.coverage.*
.cache
nosetests.xml
coverage.xml
*.cover
.hypothesis/
.pytest_cache/

# Translations
*.mo
*.pot

# Scrapy stuff:
.scrapy

# Sphinx documentation
docs/_build/

# PyBuilder
target/

# pyenv
.python-version

# pipenv
#   According to pypa/pipenv#598, it is recommended to include Pipfile.lock in version control.
#   However, in case of collaboration, if having platform-specific dependencies or dependencies
#   having no cross-platform support, pipenv may install dependencies that don't work, or not
#   install all needed dependencies.
#Pipfile.lock

# celery beat schedule file
celerybeat-schedule

# SageMath parsed files
*.sage.py

# Spyder project settings
.spyderproject
.spyproject

# Rope project settings
.ropeproject

# Mr Developer
.mr.developer.cfg
.project
.pydevproject

# mkdocs documentation
/site

# mypy
.mypy_cache/
.dmypy.json
dmypy.json

# Pyre type checker
.pyre/

### R ###
# History files
.Rhistory
.Rapp.history

# Session Data files
.RData
.RDataTmp

# User-specific files
.Ruserdata

# Example code in package build process
*-Ex.R

# Output files from R CMD build
/*.tar.gz

# Output files from R CMD check
/*.Rcheck/

# RStudio files
.Rproj.user/

# produced vignettes
vignettes/*.html
vignettes/*.pdf

# OAuth2 token, see https://github.com/hadley/httr/releases/tag/v0.3
.httr-oauth

# knitr and R markdown default cache directories
*_cache/
/cache/

# Temporary files created by R markdown
*.utf8.md
*.knit.md

### R.Bookdown Stack ###
# R package: bookdown caching files
/*_files/

### VisualStudioCode ###
.vscode/*
!.vscode/settings.json
!.vscode/tasks.json
!.vscode/launch.json
!.vscode/extensions.json

### VisualStudioCode Patch ###
# Ignore all local history of files
.history

# End of https://www.gitignore.io/api/r,python,visualstudiocode

Try it out yourself: http://gitignore.io/

PyBoy: A Python GameBoy Emulator

PyBoy: A Python GameBoy Emulator

If you are looking for a project to build a bot or AI application, look no further.

Enter the stage, PyBoy, a Nintendo Game Boy (DMG-01 [1989]) written in Python 2.7. The implementation runs in almost pure Python, but with dependencies for drawing graphics and getting user interactions through SDL2 and NumPy.

PyBoy is great for your AI robot projects as it is loadable as an object in Python. This means, it can be initialized from another script, and be controlled and probed by the script. You can even use multiple emulators at the same time, just instantiate the class multiple times.

The imagery suggests you can play anything from classic Super Mario to Pokemon. I suggest you start with the github, background report and PyBoy documentation right away.

Go catch ’em all!

Or get a bot to catch ’em all for you!

GitHub - Baekalfen/PyBoy: Game Boy emulator written in Python
The 12 Truths of Machine Learning – by Delip Rao

The 12 Truths of Machine Learning – by Delip Rao

In this original blog, with equally original title, Delip Rao poses twelve (+1) harsh truths about the real world practice of machine learning. I found it quite enlightning to read a non-hyped article about ML for once. Particularly because Delip’s experiences seem to overlap quite nicely with the principles of software design and Agile working.

Delip’s 12 truths I’ve copied in headers below. If they spark your interest, read more here:

  1. It has to work
  2. No matter how hard you push and no matter what the priority, you can’t increase the speed of light
  3. With sufficient thrust, pigs fly just fine. However, this is not necessarily a good idea
  4. Some things in life can never be fully appreciated nor understood unless experienced firsthand
  5. It is always possible to agglutinate multiple separate problems into a single complex interdependent solution. In most cases, this is a bad idea
  6. It is easier to ignore or move a problem around than it is to solve it
  7. You always have to tradeoff something
  8. Everything is more complicated than you think
  9. You will always under-provision resources
  10. One size never fits all. Your model will make embarrassing errors all the time despite your best intentions
  11. Every old idea will be proposed again with a different name and a different presentation, regardless of whether it works
  12. Perfection has been reached not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away

Delip added in a +1, with his zero-indexed truth: You are Not a Scientist.

Yes, that’s all of you building stuff with machine learning with a “scientist” in the title, including all of you with PhDs, has-been-academics, and academics with one foot in the industry. Machine learning (and other AI application areas, like NLP, Vision, Speech, …) is an engineering research discipline (as opposed to science research).

Delip Rao via deliprao.com/archives/227

Delip [bio] is the VP of Research at AI Foundation where he leads speech, language, and vision research efforts for generating and detecting artificial content. You can find his personal webblog here.

Cover image via the-vital-edge.com/lie-detector

Python Web Scraping: WordPress Visitor Statistics

Python Web Scraping: WordPress Visitor Statistics

I’ve had this WordPress domain for several years now, and in the beginning it was very convenient.

WordPress enabled me to set up a fully functional blog in a matter of hours. Everything from HTML markup, external content embedding, databases, and simple analytics was already conveniently set up.

However, after a while, I wanted to do some more advanced stuff. Here, the disadvantages of WordPress hosting became evident fast. Anything beyond the most simple capabilities is locked firmly behind paywalls. Arguably rightfully so. If you want to use WordPress’ add-ins, I feel you should pay for them. That’s their business model after all.

However, what greatly annoys me is that WordPress actively hinders you from arranging matters yourself. Want to incorporate some JavaScript in your page? Upgrade to a paid account. Want to use Google Analytics? Upgrade and buy an add-in. Want to customize your HTML / CSS code? Upgrade or be damned. Even the simplest of tasks — just downloading visitor counts — WordPress made harder than it should be.

You can download visitor statistics manually — day by day, week by week, or year by year. However, there is no way to download your visitor history in batches. If you want to have your daily visiting history, you will manually have to download and store every day’s statistics.

For me, getting historic daily data would entail 1100 times entering a date, scrolling down, clicking a button, specifying a filename, and clicking to save. I did this once, for 36 monthly data snapshots, and the insights were barely worth the hassle, I assure you.

Fortunately, today, after nearly three years of hosting on WordPress, I finally managed to circumvent past this annoyance! Using the Python script detailed below, my computer now automonously logs in to WordPress and downloads the historic daily visitor statistics for all my blogs and pages!

Let me walk you through the program and code.

Modules & Setup

Before we jump into Python, you need to install Chromedriver. Just download the zip and unpack the execution file somewhere you can find it, and make sure to copy the path into Python. You will need it later. Chromedriver allows Python’s selenium webdriver to open up and steer a chrome browser.

We need another module for browsing: webdriver_manager. The other modules and their functions are for more common purposes: os for directory management, re for regular expression, datetime for working with dates, and time for letting the computer sleep in between operations.

from selenium import webdriver
from webdriver_manager.chrome import ChromeDriverManager
from time import sleep
from datetime import datetime, timedelta
import os
import re

Helper Functions

I try to write my code in functions, so let’s dive into the functions that allow us to download visitor statistics.

To begin, we need to set up a driver (i.e., automated browser) and this is what get_driver does. Two things are important here. Firstly, the function takes an argument dir_download. You need to give it a path so it knows where to put any downloaded files. This path is stored under preferences in the driver options. Secondly, you need to specify the path_chromedriver argument. This needs to be the exact location you unpacked the chromedriver.exe. All these paths you can change later in the main program, so don’t worry about them for now. The get_driver function returns a ready-to-go driver object.

def get_driver(dir_download, path_chromedriver):
    chrome_options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
    prefs = {'download.default_directory': dir_download}
    chrome_options.add_experimental_option('prefs', prefs)
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path=path_chromedriver, options=chrome_options)
    return driver

Next, our driver will need to know where to browse to. So the function below, compile_traffic_url, uses an f-string to generate the url for the visitor statistics overview of a specific domain and date. Important here is that you will need to change the domain default from paulvanderlaken.com to your own WordPress adress. Take a look at the statistics overview in your regular browser to see how you may tailor your urls.

Now, in the rest of the program, I work dates formatted and stored as datetime.datetime.date(). By default, the compile_traffic_url function also uses a datetime date argument for today’s date. However, WordPress expects simple string dates in the urls. Hence, I need a way to convert these complex datetime dates into simpler strings. That’s what the strftimefunction below does. It formats a datetime date to a date_string, in the format YYYY-MM-DD.

def compile_traffic_url(domain='paulvanderlaken.com', date=datetime.today().date()):
    date_string = date.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
    return f'https://wordpress.com/stats/day/posts/{domain}?startDate={date_string}'

So we know how to generate the urls for the pages we want to scrape. We compile them using this handy function.

If we would let the driver browse directly to one of these compiled traffic urls, you will find yourself redirected to the WordPress login page, like below. That’s a bummer!

Hence, whenever we start our program, we will first need to log in once using our password. That’s what the signing_in function below is for. This function takes in a driver, a username, and a password. It uses the compile_traffic_url function to generate a traffic url (by default of today’s traffic [see above]). Then the driver loads the website using its get method. This will redirect us to the WordPress login page. In order for the webpages to load before our driver starts clicking away, we let our computer sleep a bit, using time.sleep.

def signing_in(driver, username, password):
    print('Sign in routine')

    url = compile_traffic_url()

    driver.get(url)
    sleep(1)

    field_email = driver.find_element_by_css_selector('#usernameOrEmail')
    field_email.send_keys(username)

    button_submit = driver.find_element_by_class_name('button')
    button_submit.click()

    sleep(1)

    field_password = driver.find_element_by_css_selector('#password')
    field_password.send_keys(password)

    button_submit = driver.find_element_by_class_name('button')
    button_submit.click()

    sleep(2)

Now, our automated driver is looking at the WordPress login page. We need to help it find where to input the username and password. If you press CTRL+SHIFT+C while on any webpage, the HTML behind it will show. Now you can just browse over the webpage elements, like the login input fields, and see what their CSS selectors, names, and classes are.

If you press CTRL+SHIFT+C on a webpage, the html behind it will show.

So, next, I order the driver to find the HTML element of the username-input field and input my username keys into it. We ask the driver to find the Continue-button and click it. Time for the driver to sleep again, while the page loads the password input field. Afterwards, we ask the driver to find the password input field, input our password, and click the Continue-button a second time. While our automatic login completes, we let the computer sleep some more.

Once we have logged in once, we will remain logged in until the Python program ends, which closes the driver.

Okay, so now that we have a function that logs us in, let’s start downloading our visitor statistics!

The download_traffic function takes in a driver, a date, and a list of dates_downloaded (an empty list by default). First, it checks whether the date to download occurs in dates_downloaded. If so, we do not want to waste time downloading statistics we already have. Otherwise, it puts the driver to work downloading the traffic for the specified date following these steps:

  1. Compile url for the specified date
  2. Driver browses to the webpage of that url
  3. Computer sleeps while the webpage loads
  4. Driver executes script, letting it scroll down to the bottom of the webpage
  5. Driver is asked to find the button to download the visitor statistics in csv
  6. Driver clicks said button
  7. Computer sleeps while the csv is downloaded

If anything goes wrong during these steps, an error message is printed and no document is downloaded. With no document downloaded, our program can try again for that link the next time.

def download_traffic(driver, date, dates_downloaded=[]):
    if date in dates_downloaded:
        print(f'Already downloaded {date} traffic')
    else:
        try:
            print(f'Downloading {date} traffic')
            url = compile_traffic_url(date=date)
            driver.get(url)
            sleep(1)
            driver.execute_script("window.scrollTo(0, document.body.scrollHeight);")
            button = driver.find_element_by_class_name('stats-download-csv')
            button.click()
            sleep(1)
        except:
            print(f'Error during downloading of {date}')

We need one more function to generate the dates_downloaded list of download_traffic. The date_from_filename function below takes in a filename (e.g., paulvanderlaken.com_posts_day_12_28_2019_12_28_2019) and searches for a regular expression date format. The found match is turned into a datetime date using strptime and returned. This allows us to walk through a directory on our computer and see for which dates we have already downloaded visitor statistics. You will see how this works in the main program below.

def date_from_filename(filename):
    match = re.search(r'\d{2}_\d{2}_\d{4}', filename)
    date = datetime.strptime(match.group(), '%m_%d_%Y').date()
    return date

Main program

In the end, we combine all these above functions in our main program. Here you will need to change five things to make it work on your computer:

  • path_data – enter a folder path where you want to store the retrieved visitor statistics csv’s
  • path_chromedriver – enter the path to the chromedriver.exe you unpacked
  • first_date – enter the date from which you want to start scraping (by default up to today)
  • username – enter your WordPress username or email address
  • password – enter your WordPress password
if __name__ == '__main__':
    path_data = 'C:\\Users\\paulv\\stack\\projects\\2019_paulvanderlaken.com-anniversary\\traffic-day\\'
    path_chromedriver = 'C:\\Users\\paulv\\chromedriver.exe'

    first_date = datetime(2017, 1, 18).date()
    last_date = datetime.today().date()

    username = "insert_username"
    password = "insert_password"

    driver = get_driver(dir_download=path_data, path_chromedriver=path_chromedriver)

    days_delta = last_date - first_date
    days = [first_date + timedelta(days) for days in range(days_delta.days + 1)]
    dates_downloaded = [date_from_filename(file) for _, _, f in os.walk(path_data) for file in f]

    signing_in(driver, username=username, password=password)

    for d in days:
        download_traffic(driver, d, dates_downloaded)
    driver.close()

If you have downloaded Chromedriver, have copied all the code blocks from this blog into a Python script, and have added in your personal paths, usernames, and passwords, this Python program should work like a charm on your computer as well. By default, the program will scrape statistics from all days from the first_date up to the day you run the program, but this you can change obviously.

Results

For me, the program took about 10 seconds to download one csv consisting of statistics for one day. So three years of WordPress blogging, or 1095 daily datasets of statistics, were extracted in about 3 hours. I did some nice cooking and wrote this blog in the meantime : )

The result after 3 hours of scraping

Compare that to the horror of having to surf, scroll, and click that godforsaken Download data as CSV button ~1100 times!!

The horror button (in Dutch)

Final notes

The main goal of this blog was to share the basic inner workings of this scraper with you, and to give you the same tool to scrape your own visitor statistics.

Now, this project can still be improved tremendously and in many ways. For instance, with very little effort you could add some command line arguments (with argparse) so you can run this program directly or schedule it daily. My next step is to set it up to run daily on my Raspberry Pi.

An additional potential improvement: when the current script encounters no statistics do download for a specific day, no csv is saved. This makes the program try again a next time it is run, as the dates_downloaded list will not include that date. Probably this some minor smart tweaks will solve this issue.

Moreover, there are many more statistics you could scrape of your WordPress account, like external clicks, the visitors home countries, search terms, et cetera.

The above are improvement points you can further develop yourself, and if you do please share them with the greater public so we can all benefit!

For now, I am happy with these data, and will start on building some basic dashboards and visualizations to derive some insights from my visitor patterns. If you have any ideas or experiences please let me know!

I hope this walkthrough and code may have help you in getting in control of your WordPress website as well. Or that you learned a thing or two about basic web scraping with Python. I am still in the midst of starting with Python myself, so if you have any tips, tricks, feedback, or general remarks, please do let me know! I am always happy to talk code and love to start pet projects to improve my programming skills, so do reach out if you have any ideas!

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Python Web Scraping: Quotes from Goodreads.com

Python Web Scraping: Quotes from Goodreads.com

Over the course of last week, I built a Python program that scrapes quotes from Goodreads.com in a tidy format. For instance, these are the first three results my program returns when scraping for the tag robot:

Quoteauthorsourcelikestags
Goodbye, Hari, my love. Remember always–all you did for me.Isaac AsimovForward the Foundation33[‘asimov’, ‘foundation’, ‘human’, ‘robot’]
Unfortunately this Electric Monk had developed a fault, and had started to believe all kinds of things, more or less at random. It was even beginning to believe things they’d have difficulty believing in Salt Lake City.Douglas AdamsDirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency25[‘belief’, ‘humor’, ‘mormonism’, ‘religion’, ‘robot’]
It’s hard to wipe your eyes when you have whirring buzzsaws for hands.Daniel H. WilsonHow to Survive a Robot Uprising: Tips on Defending Yourself Against the Coming Rebellion20[‘buzzaw’, ‘robot’, ‘survive’, ‘uprising’]
The first three quotes on Goodreads.com tagged ‘robot’

“Paul, why the hell are you building a Python API for Goodreads quotes?” I hear you asking. Well, let me provide you with some context.


A while back, I created a twitter bot called ArtificialStupidity.

As it’s bio reads, ArtificialStupidity is a highly sentient AI intelligently matching quotes and comics through state-of-the-art robotics, sophisticated machine learning, and blockchain technology.

Basically, every 15 minutes, a Python script is triggered on my computer (soon on my Raspberry Pi 4). Each time it triggers, this script generates a random number to determine whether it should post something. If so, the script subsequently generates another random number to determine what is should post: a quote, a comic, or both. Behind the scenes, some other functions add hastags and — voila — a tweet is born!

(An upcoming post will elaborate on the inner workings of my ArtificialStupidity Python script)

More often than not, ArtificialStupidity produces some random, boring tweet:

However, every now and then, the bot actually manages to combine a quote with a comic in a way that gets some laughs:

Now, in order to compile these tweets, my computer hosts two databases. One containing data- and tech- related comics; the other a variety of inspirational quotes. Each time the ArtificialStupidity bot posts a tweet, it draws from one or both of these datasets randomly. With, on average, one post every couple hours, I thus need several hundreds of items in these databases in order to prevent repetition — which is definitely not entertaining.

Up until last week, I manually expanded these databases every week or so. Adding new comics and quotes as I encountered them online. However, this proved a tedious task. Particularly for the quotes, as I set up the database in a specific format (“quote” – author). In contrast, websites like Goodreads.com display their quotes in a different format (e.g., “quote” ― author, source \n tags \n likes). Apart from the different format, the apostrophes and long slash also cause UTF-8 issues in my Python script. Hence, weekly reformatting of quotes proved an annoying task.

Up until this week!

While reformatting some bias-related quotes, I decided I’d rather invest 10 times more time developing my Python skills, than mindlessly reformatting quotes for a minute longer. So I started coding.

I am proud to say that, some six hours later, I have compiled the script below.

I’ll walk you through it’s functions.

So first, I import the modules/packages I need. Note that you will probably first have to pip install package-name on your own computer!

  • argparse for the command-line interface arguments
  • re for the regular expressions to clean quotes
  • bs4 for its BeautifulSoup for scraping website content
  • urllib.request for opening urls
  • csv to save csv files
  • os for directory pathing
import argparse
import re
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
from urllib.request import urlopen, Request
import csv
import os

Next, I set up the argparse.ArgumentParser so that I can use my API using the command line. Now you can call the Python script using the command line (e.g., goodreads-scraper.py -t 'bias' -p 3 -q 80), and provide it with some arguments. No arguments are necessary. Most have sensible defaults. If you forget to provide a tag you will be prompted to provide one as the script runs (see later).

ap = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='Scrape quotes from Goodreads.com')

ap.add_argument("-t", "--tag",
                required=False, type=str, default=None,
                help="tag (topic/theme) of quotes to scrape")
ap.add_argument("-p", "--max_pages",
                required=False, type=int, default=10,
                help="maximum number of webpages to scrape")
ap.add_argument("-q", "--max_quotes",
                required=False, type=int, default=100,
                help="maximum number of quotes to scrape")

args = vars(ap.parse_args())

Now, the main function for this script is download_goodreads_quotes. This function contains many other functions within. You will see I set my functions up in a nested fashion, so that functions which are only used inside a certain scope, are instantiated there. In regular words, I create the functions where I use them.

First, download_goodreads_quotes creates download_quotes_from_page. In turn, download_quotes_from_page creates and calls compile_url — to create the url — get_soup — to download url contents — extract_quotes_elements_from_soup — to do just that — and extract_quote_dict. This latter function is the workhorse, as it takes each scraped quote element block of HTML and extracts the quote, author, source, and number of likes. It cleans each of these data points and returns them as a dictionary. In the end, download_quotes_from_page returns a list of dictionaries for every quote element block on a page.

Second, download_goodreads_quotes creates and calls download_all_pages which calls download_quotes_from_page for all pages up to max_pages, or up to the page that no longer returns quote data, or up to the number of max_quotes has been reached. All gathered quote dictionaries are added to a results list.

def download_goodreads_quotes(tag, max_pages=1, max_quotes=50):

    def download_quotes_from_page(tag, page):

        def compile_url(tag, page):
            return f'https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/{tag}?page={page}'

        def get_soup(url):
            response = urlopen(Request(url))
            return BeautifulSoup(response, 'html.parser')

        def extract_quotes_elements_from_soup(soup):
            elements_quotes = soup.find_all("div", {"class": "quote mediumText"})
            return elements_quotes

        def extract_quote_dict(quote_element):

            def extract_quote(quote_element):
                try:
                    quote = quote_element.find('div', {'class': 'quoteText'}).get_text("|", strip=True)
                    # first element is always the quote
                    quote = quote.split('|')[0]
                    quote = re.sub('^“', '', quote)
                    quote = re.sub('”\s?$', '', quote)
                    return quote
                except:
                    return None

            def extract_author(quote_element):
                try:
                    author = quote_element.find('span', {'class': 'authorOrTitle'}).get_text()
                    author = author.strip()
                    author = author.rstrip(',')
                    return author
                except:
                    return None

            def extract_source(quote_element):
                try:
                    source = quote_element.find('a', {'class': 'authorOrTitle'}).get_text()
                    return source
                except:
                    return None

            def extract_tags(quote_element):
                try:
                    tags = quote_element.find('div', {'class': 'greyText smallText left'}).get_text(strip=True)
                    tags = re.sub('^tags:', '', tags)
                    tags = tags.split(',')
                    return tags
                except:
                    return None

            def extract_likes(quote_element):
                try:
                    likes = quote_element.find('a', {'class': 'smallText', 'title': 'View this quote'}).get_text(strip=True)
                    likes = re.sub('likes$', '', likes)
                    likes = likes.strip()
                    return int(likes)
                except:
                    return None

            quote_data = {'quote': extract_quote(quote_element),
                          'author': extract_author(quote_element),
                          'source': extract_source(quote_element),
                          'likes': extract_likes(quote_element),
                          'tags': extract_tags(quote_element)}

            return quote_data

        url = compile_url(tag, page)
        print(f'Retrieving {url}...')
        soup = get_soup(url)
        quote_elements = extract_quotes_elements_from_soup(soup)

        return [extract_quote_dict(e) for e in quote_elements]

    def download_all_pages(tag, max_pages, max_quotes):
        results = []
        p = 1
        while p <= max_pages:
            res = download_quotes_from_page(tag, p)
            if len(res) == 0:
                print(f'No results found on page {p}.\nTerminating search.')
                return results

            results = results + res

            if len(results) >= max_quotes:
                print(f'Hit quote maximum ({max_quotes}) on page {p}.\nDiscontinuing search.')
                return results[0:max_quotes]
            else:
                p += 1

        return results

    return download_all_pages(tag, max_pages, max_quotes)

Additionally, I use two functions to actually store the scraped quotes: recreate_quote turns a quote dictionary into a quote (I actually do not use the source and likes, but maybe others want to do so); save_quotes calls this recreate quote for the list of quote dictionaires it’s given, and stores them in a csv file in the current directory.

Update 2020/04/05: added UTF-8 encoding based on infoguild‘s comment.

def recreate_quote(dict):
    return f'"{dict.get("quote")}" - {dict.get("author")}'

def save_quotes(quote_data, tag):
    save_path = os.path.join(os.getcwd(), 'scraped' + '-' + tag + '.txt')
    print('saving file')
    with open(save_path, 'w', encoding='utf-8') as f:
        quotes = [recreate_quote(q) for q in quote_data]
        for q in quotes:
            f.write(q + '\n')

Finally, I need to call all these functions when the user runs this script via the command line. That’s what the following code does. If looks at the provided (default) arguments, and if no tag is provided, the user is prompted for one. Next Goodreads.com is scraped using the earlier specified download_goodreads_quotes function, and the results are saved to a csv file.

if __name__ == '__main__':
    tag = args['tag'] if args['tag'] != None else input('Provide tag to search quotes for: ')
    mp = args['max_pages']
    mq = args['max_quotes']
    result = download_goodreads_quotes(tag, max_pages=mp, max_quotes=mq)
    save_quotes(result, tag)

Use

If you paste these script pieces sequentially in a Python script / text file, and save this file as goodreads-scraper.py. You can then run this script using your command line, like so goodreads-scraper.py -t 'bias' -p 3 -q 80 where the text after -t is the tag you are searching for, -p is the number of pages you want to scrape, and -q is the maximum number of quotes you want the program to scrape.

Let me know what your favorite quote is once you get it running!

To-do

So this is definitely still work in progress. Some potential improvements I want to integrate come directly to mind:

  • Avoid errors for quotes including newlines, or
  • Write code to extract only the text of the quote, instead of the whole text of the quote element.
  • Build in concurrency using futures (but take care that quotes are still added the results sequentially. Maybe we can already download the soups of all pages, as this takes the longest.
  • Write a function to return a random quote
  • Write a function to return a random quote within a tag
  • Implement a lower limit for the number of likes of quotes
  • Refactor the download_all_pages bit.
  • Add comments and docstrings.

Feedback or tips?

I have been programming in R for quite a while now, but Python and software development in general are still new to me. This will probably be visible in the way I program, my syntax, the functions I use, or other things. Please provide any feedback you may have as I’d love to get better!

Getting started with Python in Visual Studio Code

Getting started with Python in Visual Studio Code

After several years of proscrastinating, the inevitable finally happened: Three months ago, I committed to learning Python!

I must say that getting started was not easy. One afternoon three months ago, I sat down, motivated to get started. Obviously, the first step was to download and install Python as well as something to write actual Python code. Coming from R, I had expected to be coding in a handy IDE within an hour or so. Oh boy, what was I wrong.

Apparently, there were already a couple of versions of Python present on my computer. And apparently, they were in grave conflict. I had one for the R reticulate package; one had come with Anaconda; another one from messing around with Tensorflow; and some more even. I was getting all kinds of error, warning, and conflict messages already, only 10 minutes in. Nothing I couldn’t handle in the end, but my good spirits had dropped slightly.

With Python installed, the obvious next step was to find the RStudio among the Python IDE’s and get working in that new environment. As an rational consumer, I went online to read about what people recommend as a good IDE. PyCharm seemed to be quite fancy for Data Science. However, what’s this Spyder alternative other people keep talking about? Come again, there are also Rodeo, Thonny, PyDev, and Wing? What about those then? A whole other group of Pythonista’s said that, as I work in Data Science, I should get Anaconda and work solely in Jupyter Notebooks! Okay…? But I want to learn Python to broaden my skills and do more regular software development as well. Maybe I start simple, in a (code) editor? However, here we have Atom, Sublime Text, Vim, and Eclipse? All these decisions. And I personally really dislike making regrettable decisions or committing to something suboptimal. This was already taking much, much longer than the few hours I had planned for setup.

This whole process demotivated so much that I reverted back to programming in R and RStudio the week after. However, I had not given up. Over the course of the week, I brought the selection back to Anaconda Jupyter Notebooks, PyCharm, and Atom, and I was ready to pick one. But wait… What’s this Visual Studio Code (VSC) thing by Microsoft. This looks fancy. And it’s still being developed and expanded. I had already been working in Visual Studio learning C++, and my experiences had been good so far. Moreover, Microsoft seems a reliable software development company, they must be able to build a good IDE? I decided to do one last deepdive.

The more I read about VSC and its features for Python, the more excited I got. Hey, VSC’s Python extension automatically detects Python interpreters, so it solves my conflicts-problem. Linting you say? Never heard of it, but I’ll have it. Okay, able to run notebooks, nice! Easy debugging, testing, and handy snippets… Okay! Machine learning-based IntelliSense autocompletes your Python code – that sounds like something I’d like. A shit-ton of extensions? Yes please! Multi-language support – even tools for R programming? Say no more! I’ll take it. I’ll take it all!

Linting messages in the editor and the Problems panel
Linting in VSC provides code suggestions

My goods friends at Microsoft were not done yet though. To top it all of, they have documented everything so well. It’s super easy to get started! There are numerous ordered pages dedicated to helping you set up and discover your new Python environment in VSC:

The Microsoft VSC pages also link to some more specific resources:

  • Editing Python in VS Code: Learn more about how to take advantage of VS Code’s autocomplete and IntelliSense support for Python, including how to customize their behvior… or just turn them off.
  • Linting Python: Linting is the process of running a program that will analyse code for potential errors. Learn about the different forms of linting support VS Code provides for Python and how to set it up.
  • Debugging Python: Debugging is the process of identifying and removing errors from a computer program. This article covers how to initialize and configure debugging for Python with VS Code, how to set and validate breakpoints, attach a local script, perform debugging for different app types or on a remote computer, and some basic troubleshooting.
  • Unit testing Python: Covers some background explaining what unit testing means, an example walkthrough, enabling a test framework, creating and running your tests, debugging tests, and test configuration settings.
IntelliSense and autocomplete for Python code
Python IntelliSense in VSC makes real-time code autocomplete suggestions

My Own Python Journey

So three months in I am completely blown away at how easy, fun, and versatile the language is. Nearly anything is possible, most of the language is intuitive and straightforward, and there’s a package for anything you can think of. Although I have spent many hours, I am very happy with the results. I did not get this far, this quickly, in any other language. Let me share some of the stuff I’ve done the past three months.

I’ve mainly been building stuff. Some things from scratch, others by tweaking and recycling other people’s code. In my opinion, reusing other people’s code is not necessarily bad, as long as you understand what the code does. Moreover, I’ve combed through lists and lists of build-it-yourself projects to get inspiration for projects and used stuff from my daily work and personal life as further reasons to code. I ended up building:

  • my own Twitter bot, based off of this blog, which I’ll cover in a blog soon
  • my own email bot, based off of this blog, which I’ll cover in a blog soon. It sends me cheerful pictures and updates
  • my own version of this Google images scraper
  • my own version of this Glassdoor scraper
  • a probabilistic event occurance simulator, which I’ll share in a blog post soon
  • a tournament schedule generator that takes in participants, teams (sizes), timeslots, etc and outputs when and where teams needs to play each other
  • a company simulator that takes in growth patterns and generates realistic HR data, which I plan to use in one of my next courses
  • a tiny neural network class, following this Youtube tutorial
  • solutions to the first 31 problems of Project Euler, which I highly recommend you try to solve yourself!
  • solutions to the first dozen problems posed in Automate the Boring Stuff with Python. This book and online tutorial forces you to get your hands dirty right from the start. Simply amazing content and the learning curve is precisely good

I’ve also watched and read a lot:

Although it is no longer maintained, you might find some more, interesting links on my Python resources page or here, for those transitioning from R. If only the links to the more up-to-date resources pages. Anyway, hope this current blog helps you on your Python journey or to get Python and Visual Studio Code working on your computer. Please feel free to share any of the stories, struggles, or successes you experience!