Tag: humanresources

Survival of the Best Fit: A webgame on AI in recruitment

Survival of the Best Fit: A webgame on AI in recruitment

Survival of the Best Fit is a webgame that simulates what happens when companies automate their recruitment and selection processes.

You – playing as the CEO of a starting tech company – are asked to select your favorite candidates from a line-up, based on their resumés.

As your simulated company grows, the time pressure increases, and you are forced to automate the selection process.

Fortunately, some smart techies working for your company propose training a computer to hire just like you just did.

They don’t need anything but the data you just generated and some good old supervised machine learning!

To avoid spoilers, try the game yourself and see what happens!

The game only takes a few minutes, and is best played on mobile.

www.survivalofthebestfit.com/ via Medium

Survival of the Best Fit was built by Gabor CsapoJihyun KimMiha Klasinc, and Alia ElKattan. They are software engineers, designers and technologists, advocating for better software that allows members of the public to question its impact on society.

You don’t need to be an engineer to question how technology is affecting our lives. The goal is not for everyone to be a data scientist or machine learning engineer, though the field can certainly use more diversity, but to have enough awareness to join the conversation and ask important questions.

With Survival of the Best Fit, we want to reach an audience that may not be the makers of the very technology that impact them everyday. We want to help them better understand how AI works and how it may affect them, so that they can better demand transparency and accountability in systems that make more and more decisions for us.

survivalofthebestfit.com

I found that the game provides a great intuitive explanation of how (humas) bias can slip into A.I. or machine learning applications in recruitment, selection, or other human resource management practices and processes.

If you want to read more about people analytics and machine learning in HR, I wrote my dissertation on the topic and have many great books I strongly recommend.

Finally, here’s a nice Medium post about the game.

https://www.survivalofthebestfit.com/game/

Note, as Joachin replied below, that the game apparently does not learn from user-input, but is programmed to always result in bias towards blues.
I kind of hoped that there was actually an algorithm “learning” in the backend, and while the developers could argue that the bias arises from the added external training data (you picked either Google, Apple, or Amazon to learn from), it feels like a bit of a disappointment that there is no real interactivity here.

Books for the modern, data-driven HR professional (incl. People Analytics)

Books for the modern, data-driven HR professional (incl. People Analytics)

With great pleasure I’ve studied and worked in the field of people analytics, where we seek to leverage employee, management-, and business information to better organize and manage our personnel. Here, data has proven valuable itself indispensible for the organization of the future.

Data and analytics have not traditionally been high on the list of HR professionals. Fortunately, there is an increased awareness that the 21st century (HR) manager has to be data-savvy. But where to start learning? The plentiful available resources can be daunting…

Have a look at these 100+ amazing books
for (starting) people analytics specialists.
My personal recommendations are included as pictures,
but feel free to ask for more detailed suggestions!


Categories (clickable)

  • Behavioural Psychology: focus on behavioural psychology and economics, including decision-making and the biases therein.
  • Technology: focus on the implications of new technology….
    • Ethics: … on society and humanity, and what can go wrong.
    • Digital & Data-driven HR: … for the future of work, workforce, and organization. Includes people analytics case studies.
  • Management: focus on industrial and organizational psychology, HR, leadership, and business strategy.
  • Statistics: focus on the technical books explaining statistical concepts and applied data analysis.
    • People analytics: …. more technical books on how to conduct people analytics studies step-by-step in (statistical) software.
    • Programming: … technical books specifically aimed at (statistical) programming and data analysis.
  • Communication: focus on information exchange, presentation, and data visualization.

Disclaimer: This page contains links to Amazon’s book shop.
Any purchases through those links provide us with a small commission that helps to host this blog.

Behavioural Psychology books

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Technology books

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Ethics in Data & Machine Learning

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Digital & Data-driven HR

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Management books

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Statistics books

Applied People Analytics

Programming

You can find an overview of 20+ free programming books here.

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Data Visualization books

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A note of thanks

I want to thank the active people analytics community, publishing in management journals, but also on social media. I knew Littral Shemer Haim already hosted a people analytics reading list, and so did Analytics in HR (Erik van Vulpen) and Workplaceif (Manoj Kumar). After Jared Valdron called for book recommendation on people analytics on LinkedIn, and nearly 60 people replied, I thought let’s merge these overviews.

Hence, a big thank you and acknowledgement to all those who’ve contributed directly or indirectly. I hope this comprehensive merged overview is helpful.

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Checklist to Optimize Training Transfer in Organizations

Checklist to Optimize Training Transfer in Organizations

Ashley Hughes, Stephanie Zajac, Jacqueline Spencer, and Eduardo Salas wrote a recent research note for the International Journal of Training and Development. The research note is build around an evidence-based checklist of actionable insights for practitioners that will help to enhance the effectiveness of training interventions. These actionable insights would help to prevent ‘transfer problem’, meaning that trained skills are not being used on the job. 


Screenshot of the first page of the published research note, containing the abstract

Unfortunately, these published academic papers are often behind a paywall, but you may request a PDF from the authors here on ResearchGate.

Screenshot of the appendix of the research note containing the checklist for practitioners.

For the full details and scientific evidence behind each suggested action, I suggest you access the research note. Nevertheless, here’s my summary of their main advice on improving training transfer before, during, and after training implementation:

Before training

  • Conduct a training needs analysis to align the training’s content and participants with the organizational objectives
  • Involved stakeholders should be aware of training, understand its importance, and — obviously — be prepared for the training program. The scholars provide seven specific actions here, including the setting of personal training goals, and aligning resources and rewards with the training.
  • Training attendance should be framed as an opportunity, and the training’s anticipated benefits could be emphasized (e.g. improvement of work processes or on-the-job performance).
  • A climate which encourages learning should be created, with dedicated time (and opportunities) for post‐training learning 
    and a sense of accountability for using trained knowledge, skills, and abilities.

During training

  • Piloting the training with a single department or subset of trainees is highly encouraged. This is one way that greatly helps to assess whether the training design is appropriate in terms of content and delivery.
  • Error‐encouragement framing can influence a trainee’s learning orientation and thus errors made during training should be framed as growth opportunities.

After training

  • Use of the trained skills should be supported and planned. For instance, participants could be given a small workload reduction to provide opportunities to apply the learned knowledge and skills once they return to their position. 
  • Management and training participants should be held accountable for their use of skills on the job.
  • Think about using just‐in‐time or refresher training and coaching, if needed.
  • Assess training effectiveness criteria including training transfer using metrics and analytics. Specifically, the scholars propose that the criteria measured in the training evaluation should correspond to the training needs identified through the training needs analysis that was conducted before the training. 
  • Training evaluation criteria should consider the scope and timeframe of the training. Take into account that distal outcomes such as ROI may take longer to realize. 

Privacy, Compliance, and Ethical Issues with Predictive People Analytics

Privacy, Compliance, and Ethical Issues with Predictive People Analytics

November 9th 2018, I defended my dissertation on data-driven human resource management, which you can read and download via this link. On page 149, I discuss several of the issues we face when implementing machine learning and analytics within an HRM context. For the references and more detailed background information, please consult the full dissertation. More interesting reads on ethics in machine learning can be found here.


Privacy, Compliance, and Ethical Issues

Privacy can be defined as “a natural right of free choice concerning interaction and communication […] fundamentally linked to the individual’s sense of self, disclosure of self to others and his or her right to exert some level of control over that process” (Simms, 1994, p. 316). People analytics may introduce privacy issues in many ways, including the data that is processed, the control employees have over their data, and the free choice experienced in the work place. In this context, ethics would refer to what is good and bad practice from a standpoint of moral duty and obligation when organizations collect, analyze, and act upon HRM data. The next section discusses people analytics specifically in light of data privacy, legal boundaries, biases, and corporate social responsibility and free choice.

Data Privacy

Technological advancements continue to change organizational capabilities to collect, store, and analyze workforce data and this forces us to rethink the concept of privacy (Angrave et al., 2016; Bassi, 2011; Martin & Freeman, 2003). For the HRM function, data privacy used to involve questions such as “At what team size can we use the average engagement score without causing privacy infringements?” or “How long do we retain exit interview data?” In contrast, considerably more detailed information on employees’ behaviors and cognitions can be processed on an almost continuous basis these days. For instance, via people analytics, data collected with active monitoring systems help organizations to improve the accuracy of their performance measurement, increasing productivity and reducing operating costs (Holt, Lang, & Sutton, 2016). However, such systems seem in conflict with employees’ right to solitude and their freedom from being watched or listened to as they work (Martin & Freeman, 2003) and are perceived as unethical and unpleasant, affecting employees’ health and morale (Ball, 2010; Faletta, 2014; Holt et al., 2016; Martin & Freeman, 2003; Sánchez Abril, Levin, & Del Riego, 2012). Does the business value such monitoring systems bring justify their implementation? One could question whether business value remains when a more long-term and balanced perspective is taken, considering the implications for employee attraction, well-being, and retention. These can be difficult considerations, requiring elaborate research and piloting.

Faletta (2014) asked American HRM professionals which of 21 data sources would be appropriate for use in people analytics. While some were considered appropriate from an ethical perspective (e.g., performance ratings, demographic data, 360-degree feedback), particularly novel data sources were considered problematic: data of e-mail and video surveillance, performance and behavioral monitoring, and social media profiles and messages. At first thought, these seem extreme, overly intrusive data that are not and will not be used for decision-making. However, in reality, several organizations already collect such data (e.g., Hoffmann, Hartman, & Rowe, 2003; Roth et al., 2016) and they probably hold high predictive value for relevant business outcomes. Hence, it is not inconceivable that future organizations will find ways to use these data for personnel-related decisions – legally or illegally. Should they be allowed to? If not, who is going to monitor them? What if the data are used for mutually beneficial goals – to prevent problems or accidents? These and other questions deserve more detailed discussion by scholars, practitioners, and governments – preferably together.

Legal Boundaries

Although HRM professionals should always ensure that they operate within the boundaries of the law, legal compliance does not seem sufficient when it comes to people analytics. Frequently, legal systems are unprepared to defend employees’ privacy against the potential invasions via the increasingly rigorous data collection systems (Boudreau, 2014; Ciocchetti, 2011; Sánchez Abril et al., 2012). Initiatives such as the General Data Protection Regulation in the European Union somewhat restore the power balance, holding organizations and their HRM departments accountable to inform employees what, why, and how personal data is processed and stored. The rights to access, correct, and erase their information is returned to employees (GDPR, 2016). However, such regulation may not always exist and, even if it does, data usage may be unethical, regardless of its legality.

For instance, should organizations use all personnel data for which they have employee consent? One could argue that there are cases where the power imbalance between employers and employees negates the validity of consent. For instance, employees may be asked to sign written elaborate declarations or complex agreements as part of their employment, without being fully aware of what they consent to. Moreover, employees may feel pressured to provide consent in fear of losing their job, losing face, or peer pressure. Relatedly, employees may be incentivized to provide consent because of the perks associated with doing so, without fully comprehending the consequences. For instance, employees may share access to personal behavioral data in exchange for mobile devices, wellness, or mobility benefits, in which case these direct benefits may bias their perception and judgement. In such cases, data usage may not be ethically responsible, regardless of the legal boundaries, and HRM departments in general and people analytics specialists in specific should take the responsibility to champion the privacy and the interests of their employees.

Automating Historic Biases

While ethics can be considered an important factor in any data analytics project, it is particularly so in people analytics projects. HRM decisions have profound implications in an imbalanced relationship, whereas the data within the HRM field often suffer from inherent biases. This becomes particularly clear when exploring applications of predictive analytics in the HRM domain.

For example, imagine that we want to implement a decision-support system to improve the efficiency of our organization’s selection process. A primary goal of such a system could be to minimize the human time (both of our organizational agents and of the potential candidates) wasted on obvious mismatches between candidates and job positions. Under the hood, a decision-support system in a selection setting could estimate a likelihood (i.e., prediction) for each candidate that he/she makes it through the selection process successfully. Recruiters would then only have to interview the candidates that are most likely to be successful, and save valuable time for both themselves and for less probable candidates. In this way, an artificially intelligent system that reviews candidate information and recommends top candidates could considerably decrease the human workload and thereby the total cost of the selection process.

For legal compliance as well as ethical considerations, we would not want such a decision-support system to be biased towards any majority or minority group. Should we therefore exclude demographic and socio-economic factors from our predictive model? What about the academic achievements of candidates, the university they attended, or their performance on our selection tests? Some of those are scientifically validated predictors of future job performance (e.g., Hunter & Schmidt, 1998). However, they also relate to demographic and socio-economic factors and would therefore introduce bias (e.g., Hough, Oswald, & Ployhart, 2001; Pyburn, Ployhart, & Kravitz, 2008; Roth & Bobko, 2000). Do we include or exclude these selection data in our model?

Maybe the simplest solution would be to include all information, to normalize our system’s predictions within groups afterwards (e.g., gender), and to invite the top candidates per group for follow-up interviews. However, which groups do we consider? Do we only normalize for gender and nationality, or also for age and social class? What about combinations of these characteristics? Moreover, if we normalize across all groups and invite the best candidate within each, we might end up conducting more interviews than in the original scenario. Should we thus account for the proportional representation of each of these groups in the whole labor population? As you notice, both the decision-support system and the subject get complicated quickly.

Even more problematic is that any predictive decision-support system in HRM is likely biased from the moment of conception. HRM data is frequently infested with human biases as bias was present in the historic processes that generated the data. For instance, the recruiters in our example may have historically favored candidates with a certain profile, for instance, red hair. After training our decision-support system (i.e., predictive model) on these historic data, it will recognize and copy the pattern that candidates with red hair (or with correlated features, such as a Northwest European nationality) are more likely successful. The system thus learns to recommend those individuals as the top candidates. While this issue could be prevented by training the model on more objective operationalization of candidate success, most HRM data will include its own specific biases. For example, data on performance ratings will include not only the historic preferences of recruiters (i.e., only hired employees received ratings), but also the biases of supervisors and other assessors in the performance evaluation processes. Similar and other biases may occur in data regarding promotions, training courses, talent assessments, or compensation. If we use these data to train our models and systems, we would effectively automate our historic biases. Such issues greatly hinder the implementation of (predictive) people analytics without causing compliance and ethical issues.

Corporate Social Responsibility versus Free Choice

Corporate social responsibility also needs to be discussed in light of people analytics. People analytics could allow HRM departments to work on social responsibility agendas in many ways. For instance, people analytics can help to demonstrate what causes or prevents (un)ethical behavior among employees, to what extent HRM policies and practices are biased, to what extent they affect work-life balance, or how employees can be stimulated to make decisions that benefit their health and well-being. Regarding the latter case, a great practical example comes from Google’s people analytics team. They uncovered that employees could be stimulated to eat more healthy snacks by color-coding snack containers, and that smaller cafeteria plate sizes could prevent overconsumption and food loss (ABC News, 2013). However, one faces difficult ethical dilemmas in this situation. Is it organizations’ responsibility to nudge employees towards good behavior? Who determines what good entails? Should employees be made aware of these nudges? What do we consider an acceptable tradeoff between free choice and societal benefits?

When we consider the potential of predictive analytics in this light, the discussion gets even more complicated. For instance, imagine that organizations could predict work accidents based on historic HRM information, should they be forbidden, allowed, or required to do so? What about health issues, such as stress and burnout? What would be an acceptable accuracy for such models? How do we feel about false positive and false negatives? Could they use individual-level information if that resulted in benefits for employees?

In conclusion, analytics in the HRM domain quickly encounters issues related to privacy, compliance, and ethics. In bringing (predictive) analytics into the HRM domain, we should be careful not to copy and automate the historic biases present in HRM processes and data. The imbalance in the employment relationship puts the responsibility in the hands of organizational agents. The general message is that what can be done with people analytics may differ from what should be done from a corporate social responsibility perspective. The spread of people analytics depends on our collective ability to harness its power ethically and responsibility, to go beyond the legal requirements and champion both the privacy as well as the interests of employees and the wider society. A balanced approach to people analytics – with benefits beyond financial gain for the organization – will be needed to make people analytics accepted by society, and not just another management tool.

Predicting Employee Turnover at SIOP 2018

The 2018 annual Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) conference featured its first-ever machine learning competition. Teams competed for several months in predicting the enployee turnover (or churn) in a large US company. A more complete introduction as presented at the conference can be found here. All submissions had to be open source and the winning submissions have been posted in this GitHub repository. The winning teams consist of analysts working at WalMart, DDI, and HumRRO. They mostly built ensemble models, in Python and/or R, combining algorithms such as (light) gradient boosted trees, neural networks, and random forest analysis.

HR Analytics: Een 7e zintuig voor de moderne HR-professional

HR Analytics: Een 7e zintuig voor de moderne HR-professional

Wat gebeurt er in Nederland op het gebied van HR Analytics? Dit nieuwe boek laat zien wat enkele Nederlandse organisaties de afgelopen jaren daadwerkelijk hebben ondernomen. De verschillende auteurs, waaronder ik mij mag scharen, geven een kijkje in de praktijkwereld van het onderbouwen van HR-beslissingen aan de hand van diverse databronnen en analysetechnieken. Ze verklaren daarmee HR Analytics niet heilig, maar wie als HR- professional waarde wil toevoegen aan de business, kan er veel aan hebben. Het credo is dan: weet wat je moet doen, wees alert op de valkuilen en beschouw HR Analytics als een zevende zintuig naast je andere zintuigen. Met dit extra zintuig kun je als HR- professional scherper waarnemen wat het echte HR-probleem is, en wat mogelijk de oplossing is.

Het boek ‘HR Analytics’ is voor de moderne HR-professional die nieuwsgierig is naar wat analytics kan bij dragen aan zijn of haar professionaliteit. De voorbeelden en verhalen uit de praktijk leveren verschillende leerpunten en inzichten die helpen bij een meer analytische benadering van de diverse HR beleidsthema’s rondom recruitment, loopbanen, arbeidsvoorwaarden, training en opleiding of engagement. Het is een duwtje in de rug op weg naar HR Analytics als een toevoeging aan het HR-vak. Niet als vervanging.

Wiemer Renkema, recensist op managementboeken.nl, heeft het boek inmiddels gelezen en vat de inhoud mooi samen:

In de tien hoofdstukken van het boek komen de belangrijkste HR analytics voorbij, zoals die voor recruitment, carrièreontwikkeling, medewerkerstevredenheid en beloning. De lezer kan zelf de relevantie van ieder onderwerp bepalen en gericht de informatie zoeken die voor hem van belang is. Bij ieder onderwerp gaan de schrijvers in op alle kernvragen, wat het boek een overzichtelijke en makkelijk leesbare structuur geeft.

[…]

Je hebt geen lange adem nodig om HR analytics. Een 7e zintuig voor de moderne HR-professional te lezen. Wat een praktisch, compleet en goed geschreven boek is dit!

Wiemer Renkema, recensist [link]

Hier kun je een deel van het introductiehoofdstuk inzien om te kijken of het boek iets voor jou is.